Synthetic & Special Fabrics made from fibres that are not grown naturally fall into two categories: synthetic and rayon.
Synthetic fabric, such as polyester, nylon, acrylic, and elastane, are produced chemically from combinations of gas, petroleum, alcohol, water, and air. Rayons, such as viscose and acetate, are made from plant cellulose, which is regenerated to form fibres. Like the fabircs formed from natural fibres, most rayons are absorbent and comfortable to wear, but they crease easily and tend to shrink and ravel. Synthetic fabrics are durable, hardwearing , and crease-resistant, but they are not absorbent. Special fabrics include unusual and experimental textiles, as well as fabrics such as leather and suede, which require special sewing techniques.
Here are some of the many types of wollen fabrics:
Acrylic is a lightweight, woven or knitted fabric that was developed as a wol substitute. It tends to retain static. Acrylic is used mainly for sportswear.
A fabric made from chemically crimped yarns, this is soft and pliable, which makes it comfortable to wear. It is often used for blouses and evening wear.
A fine, cross-rib fabric, faille is similar to grosgrain. It creases easily. Made from acetate, polyester, or viscose, it is used mainly for dresses.
This fabric is made from wood pulp or cotton waste. Soft, absorbent, and mothproof, it drapes well. It is often used for dresses and skirts.
This is a heavy, closely woven, stiff fabric that has a pronounced crossways rib. Grosgrain is usually used for formal garments and evenings wear.
A soft, synthetic fabric, this is crease-resistant and hardwearing. It drapes very well and is used mainly for lingerie, blouses, dresses, and evening wear.
This is a densely woven, durable fabric made from very fine fibres, usually polyester. Some types are water-repellent. It is used for all types of clothing.
This loosely woven or knitted fabric has looped or curled threads for a bulky look. Made from polyester, viscose, or wool blends, boucle is used mainly for suits.
A polyester fabric, this is made to look and handle like linen, but has the crease resistance and ease of care of polyester. It is often used for suits and dresses.
A delicate, satin-weave fabric, charmeuse has a shiny face and a matt back. Made form rayon, viscose, polyester, or blends, it is used mostly for blouses and lingerie.
This is a lightweight coating with a soft, brushed surface. It is usually made from bulked acrylic fibres, and is used mainly for outdoor wear.
A reversible fabric with a satin face and a crepe back, thi sis made from rayon, polyester, and silk. It drapes well, and is often used for dresses, blouses, and lingerie.
A synthetic or mixed fabric, flock has short fibre tufts attached with an adhesive to form a pattern, It is used mostly for dresses, jackets, and evening wear.
This strong, lightweight fabric takes dye well. It is non-absorbent, but tends to build up static, and to ill. It is used mainly for rainwear, underwear, and skiwear.
This has patterned finish that is reversed on the wrong side. The pattern may vary from fabric to fabric. Jacquard is often used for making suits, jackets, and skirts.
A mesh-like fabric made from nylon, net is not suitable for wearing next to the skin since it is abrasive. It is often used for full petticoasts, ballet skirts, and costumes.
Similar to viscose but with a different chemical composition, acetate is lustrous, and drapes well. Is tis used mainly for dresses, lingerie, and sportswear.
A heavy, synthetic, non-woven fabric, vinyl looks similar to leather but does not breathe as well. It is generally used for upholstery and outerwear.
This is a synthetic, transparent, stiff fabric that is finely pleated with a crinkle finish. Care is needed when sewing. It is often used for evening wear.
A woven or knitted, lightweight fabric that is coated with polyvinyl chloride, PVS is tough and non-porous, and is used mainly for trims, rainwear, and aprons.
This is produced from latex, the sap of the rubber plant. Rubber is flexible and waterproof. It is used generally for rainwear, work clothing, and novelty garments.
This is a sheer frabric to which sequins are fixed during its production. These are heat sensitive and tarnish easily. The fabric is often used for eveningwear.
A lightweight fabric made from elastomeric fibres, spandex can be combined with other fibres to add stretch. It is often used for casual clothes and sportswear.
This is smooth and shiny, knitted or woven fabric that uses a metallic yarn. Knitted lame drapes better than woven lame. It is used mainly for eveningwear.
A fur fabric made from synthetic fibres (usually modacrylic) attached to a firm, woven backing, this is often used to make coats, jackets, hats, and bags.
This is synthetic, metallic fabric with a very shiny, decorative surface. It is soft to handle and drapes well. It is used mainly for eveningwear.
This is the tanned and finished outside of an animal skin, most commonly sheepskin or cowhide. Sold by the skin, It is used mostly for outerwear and luggage.